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Climate and Geographical factors
  • Located in desert/grasslands
  • Approximately 400km east of Atlantic Ocean
  • Stretched from Niger to Senegal in the south, and Baule in the west
  • Controlled gold and salt between the south and north
  • Average yearly rainfall-400mm

Events and leaders

  • 300 – Discovery of iron
  • Approx. eighth century – becomes organized state
  • 992 – Ghana captures Awdaghast (city along the trans-Saharan trade route)
  • 1054 – Ibn Yasin marches south and captures Aoudaghast (one of Ghana’s cities)
  • 1062 – Tunka Manin takes the throne
  • 1076 – Abu Bakr Captures Ghana’s capital
  • Fell by end of eleventh century

Transportation and Weaponry

  • Use of camels and donkeys to transport goods
  • Camels were the best and most important form of transport because:
    • Because they could keep steady under heavy loads even in sand and rough conditions
    • They don’t need much food or water and go for many days without them
  • Transportation of goods was a huge income for Ancient Ghana
  • People wishing to transport through Ancient Ghana were charged by the donkey or camel load
  • Ghana was more advanced in weaponry than most of its neighbours in that they had discovered iron and now had swords and spears while their enemies had blocks of ebony

Agriculture and Economy

  • Economy was based mostly on control of the trade route
  • Capital city was split into two; one half for the king and his court; the other for Muslim traders
  • Slave trade existed but was not too predominate
  • Farmed yams, rice, onions, etc.
  • Taxes were charged on all incoming and out going goods
  • Raising cattle and livestock was common
Yams
Yams

Socio-Political Structure
  • Original religion of the state was pagan
  • Became Islam when invaded and taken over by Almoravids
  • The king was considered to possess divine powers
  • The king controlled the religious rituals in the state
  • The state was divided into districts with a representative residing over each district
  • The king ruled the stated with a court of elders advising him
  • Government was a monarchy

Art, Literature, and music

  • Thatched or straw roofs accompanied by round, mud walls
  • Fire pottery was made mostly for practical purposes
  • Spoke Mande
  • Several pages from the Koran were found in an archaeological dig carved into stone
  • Made cotton fabric
Cotton Fabric
Cotton Fabric